supplementary TOEFL listening material 3


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Unit 1: Conversation


Unit 2: Discussion


Unit 3: Lecture

Unit 3 – The Lecture

Vocabulary Builder

This list features academic words that you may see or hear on the reading and/or listening sections of the TOEFL and IELTS tests. Becoming familiar with these and similar words will also help you on the writing and speaking portions of the tests:

ac·quire/əˈkwī(ə)r/Pelajari pengucapannya verb 

  1. 1.buy or obtain (an asset or object) for oneself.”I managed to acquire all the books I needed” Sinonim:obtain  come by  come to have get  receive  gain  earn  win  come into  come in for  take possession of take receipt of be given buy  purchase  procure  possess oneself of secure  gather  collect  pick up  appropriate  amass  build up  hook  net land  achieve  attain  get one’s hands on  get one’s mitts on get hold of  grab  bag  score  swing  nab  collar  cop   Antonim:lose  part with 
  2. 2.learn or develop (a skill, habit, or quality).”you must acquire the rudiments of Greek”

      https://youtu.be/KO_MbWWUgNk bi·as/ˈbīəs/Pelajari pengucapannyaLihat definisi di:All Statistics Bowls Electronics Needleworknoun 

  1. 1.prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.”there was evidence of bias against foreign applicants” Sinonim:prejudice  partiality  partisanship  favoritism  unfairness  one-sidedness bigotry  intolerance  racism  racialism  sexism  heterosexism  homophobia  chauvinism  anti-Semitism  discrimination  a jaundiced eye predisposition  leaning  tendency  inclination  propensity  proclivity  proneness  predilection  parti pris   Antonim:objectivity  fairness  impartiality 
  2. 2.in some sports, such as lawn bowling, the irregular shape given to a ball.
  3.     

verb 

  1. 1.cause to feel or show inclination or prejudice for or against someone or something.”all too often, our recruitment processes are biased toward younger candidates” Sinonim:prejudice  influence  color  sway  weight  predispose  distort  skew  bend  twist  warp  angle  load  slant  prejudiced  partial  partisan  one-sided  blinkered  subjective  bigoted  intolerant  discriminatory  racist  racialist sexist  heterosexist homophobic  antigay  chauvinistic  chauvinist  anti-Semitic  jaundiced  distorted  warped  twisted  skewed  parti pris   Antonim:unbiased  impartial  fair  
  2. 2.ELECTRONICSgive a bias to.”bias the ball”

https://youtu.be/jTNjM0gk3F4 ap·par·ent/əˈperənt/Pelajari pengucapannya adjective 

  1. clearly visible or understood; obvious.”it became apparent that he was talented” Sinonim:evident  plain  obvious  clear  manifest  visible  discernible  perceptible  perceivable noticeable  detectable  recognizable  observable  unmistakable  crystal clear  as clear as crystal transparent  palpable  patent  distinct  pronounced  marked  striking  conspicuous  overt  blatant  as plain as a pikestaff  staring someone in the face writ large  written all over someone as plain as day beyond (a) doubt beyond question self-evident  indisputable  standing/sticking out a mile  Antonim:unclear  obscure 
  1.  
  1.  

https://youtu.be/v40to0lvTKo com·pound1Lihat definisi di:All Chemistry Grammar Finance Biology Law     noun /ˈkämˌpound/

  1. a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.”the air smelled like a compound of diesel and gasoline fumes” Sinonim:amalgam  amalgamation  combination  composite  blend  mixture  mix  admixture  meld  fusion  synthesis  consolidation  alloy  hybrid  mash-up 

     adjective /ˈkämˌpound,kəmˈpound/

  1. made up or consisting of two or more existing parts or elements.”a compound noun” Sinonim:composite  complex  blended  fused  synthesized  compounded  combined   Antonim:simple 

     verb /kəmˈpound,ˈkämˌpound/

  1. 1.make up (a composite whole); constitute.”a dialect compounded of Spanish and Dutch” Sinonim:be composed of be made up of be constituted of be formed from
  2. 2.make (something bad) worse; intensify the negative aspects of.”I compounded the problem by trying to make wrong things right” Sinonim:aggravate  worsen  make worse add to  augment   

https://youtu.be/OkcsaHyb7NU

Tips – APPLYING  THE ACADEMIC SKILLS TO THE
TOEFL:

Taking Notes

Taking notes is probably the most
important academic skill for the Listening section. When you take notes, you
will organize the information into major points and minor points. You will also
record information that you can refer to when you answer questions. Your
ability to take notes will be critical for you to score well on this section.

Paraphrasing

Many of the answer choices are paraphrases
of information from the passage. Your ability to recognize paraphrases will be
helpful as you choose your answers.

Summarizing

The first question in each conversation
usually requires you to understand the purpose of the conversation, and the
first question in each lecture usually requires you to recognize a summary of
the main idea. By mastering the academic skill of summarizing, you will be able
to respond correctly to the first question in each prompt. You will also be
better prepared to relate ideas and make connections.

Synthesizing
This important skill is tested in other

sections of the TOEFL

Listening Practice – A Lecture on Neurobiology

[spoiler title=”Click Here: The Discussion Script”].
The professor: “¿Hablas español? Parlez-vous français? 你会说中文吗? If you answered, “sí,” “oui,” or “会” and you’re watching this in English, chances are you belong to the world’s bilingual and multilingual majority. And besides having an easier time traveling or watching movies without subtitles, knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends. So what does it really mean to know a language? Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking and writing, and two passive parts, listening and reading. While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages, most bilinguals around the world know and use their languages in varying proportions. And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types. For example, let’s take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she’s two-years old. As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously, with a single set of concepts, learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her. Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be a coordinate bilingual, working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school, while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends. Finally, Gabriella’s parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals who learn a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language. Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless of accent or pronunciation, the difference may not be apparent to a casual observer. But recent advances in brain imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain. It’s well known that the brain’s left hemisphere is more dominant and analytical in logical processes, while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split. The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization develops gradually with age, has lead to the critical period hypothesis. According to this theory, children learn languages more easily because the plasticity of their developing brains lets them use both hemispheres in language acquisition, while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left. If this is true, learning a language in childhood may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts. Conversely, recent research showed that people who learned a second language in adulthood exhibit less emotional bias and a more rational approach when confronting problems in the second language than in their native one. But regardless of when you acquire additional languages, being multilingual gives your brain some remarkable advantages. Some of these are even visible, such as higher density of the grey matter that contains most of your brain’s neurons and synapses, and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language. The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases, like Alzheimer’s and dementia by as much as five years. The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprised earlier experts. Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed a child’s development by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies. And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests, it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in, and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This is the part of the brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving, switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information. So, while bilingualism may not necessarily make you smarter, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged, and even if you didn’t have the good fortune of learning a second language as a child, it’s never too late to do yourself a favor and make the linguistic leap from, “Hello,” to, “Hola,” “Bonjour” or “你好’s” because when it comes to our brains a little exercise can go a long way.”
[/spoiler]

Tips to Answer A Main-Idea/Gist Type of Question:

Listen carefully to the beginning of the passage to develop an initial idea about the gist of the passage, or its purpose. Then, as you listen to the rest of the passage, adjust your idea about the main idea or general topic of the passage based on what the speakers are saying. Furthermore, Listen to any particular words that the speaker emphasizes or stresses (pronounces more loudly than other words). These emphasized words indicate important information.

 

 

Tips to Answer an Organization Type of Questions: Finally, we have the function-type organization questions. These will ask you about whole sentences that provide a clue to how the professor is structuring the lecture. For example, the professor will sometimes go off topic, give a personal example to clarify the information, or give information that is redundant. Often, s/he will announce this by saying something like “You don’t need to write this down” or “Let me show you what I mean.” To answer the type of organization question correctly, you need to pay attention to these cues. In particular, pay attention to any time the professor appears to be digressing (going off topic), as you may be asked about the digression later.

 

 

Show it Off! 
Summarize your experiences when dealing with a lecture type of question below! What aspects are the most challenging and how do you manage to face it?


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