supplementary TOEFL listening material 2


Berhadiah: Berikan Penilaian Materi Ini

Unit 1: Conversation


Unit 2: Discussion


Unit 3: Lecture

Unit 2 – The Discussion

In this unit, you will learn the following:

Vocabulary Builder

Tips: The following words are from the Academic Word List  which consists of 570 most frequently used words in academic texts. You need to learn these words if you wish to pass an academic exam such as IELTS, TOEFL or PTE Academic or if you wish to study in an English speaking university:

not·with·stand·ing/ˌnätwiTHˈstandiNG,ˌnätwiT͟HˈstandiNG/Pelajari pengucapannya preposition 

  1. in spite of.”notwithstanding the evidence, the consensus is that the jury will not reach a verdict” Sinonim:in spite of  despite  regardless of  for all  

adverb 

  1. nevertheless; in spite of this.”I didn’t like it. Notwithstanding, I remained calm” Sinonim:nevertheless  nonetheless  even so  all the same  in spite of this/that despite this/that after everything however  still  yet  be that as it may  having said that that said  for all that just the same  anyway  in any event  at any rate  at all events  when all is said and done  withal  howbeit  

conjunction 

  1. although; in spite of the fact that.”notwithstanding that the hall was packed with bullies, our champion played on steadily and patiently” Sinonim:although  in spite of the fact that despite the fact that even though

https://youtu.be/tCfq2VfHeWo pre·cede/prəˈsēd/Pelajari pengucapannya verb 

  1. come before (something) in time.”a gun battle had preceded the explosions” Sinonim:go/come before go in advance of lead up to  lead to pave the way for  prepare the way for set the scene for  herald  introduce  usher in antecede predate  antedate  forego  prevene  Antonim:follow  succeed 

https://youtu.be/Bqel0lVdfM4 pre·sume/prəˈz(y)o͞om/Pelajari pengucapannya verb 

  1. 1.suppose that something is the case on the basis of probability.”I presumed that the man had been escorted from the building” Sinonim:assume  suppose  dare say imagine  take it  expect  believe  think  surmise  guess  judge  trust  conjecture  speculate  postulate  posit  hypothesize  deduce  divine  infer  conclude  presuppose  take for granted  take as read
  2. 2.be audacious enough to do something.”kindly don’t presume to issue me orders in my own house” Sinonim:venture  dare  have the temerity have the audacity
  1.  
  1.  

https://youtu.be/V99pVQavt3E in·stance/ˈinstəns/Pelajari pengucapannya noun 

  1. an example or single occurrence of something.”a serious instance of corruption” Sinonim:example  occasion  occurrence  case  representative case typical case case in point  illustration  specimen  sample  exemplar  exemplification

verb 

  1. cite (a fact, case, etc.) as an example.”here he instances in particular the work of Bach” Sinonim:cite  quote  refer to make reference to mention   

https://youtu.be/w7HDPNPu5f8

Listening Practice 1 – Inference on “Richie Rich”

Direction: Listen to a part of Discussion between a teacher and students in a business class.

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZlL0LLfjKY&app=desktop

[spoiler title=”Clik Here: The Discussion Script”]
The teacher: Let’s move on to case study number 12. Your company is in dire straits. Sales are down 50 percent due to stiff price competition. Dividends are falling. Stockholders are demanding you step down as chairman of the board. Now, here’s your problem. How do you rally the board of directors to your side and stave off impending bankruptcy?
Reynolds?
Reynolds: I’ll have my secretary get back to you on that one.
Ellsworth, how would you get the board on your side?
Ellsworth: Bribe someone.
The teacher: Sit down, Ellsworth. Reginald, what would you do?
Reginald: What would I do? Simple. I’d float a rumor we’re the object of a takeover bid. And as soon as our stock went up, I’d sell.
The teacher: That’s not only unethical, Reginald, it’s illegal.
Reynolds: I’m only 12. I can’t be held legally responsible.
The teacher: Good point. Rich, are you and Cuthbert passing notes again?
Richie: No, sir.
The teacher: Cuthbert?
Reynolds: Capital appreciation is all well and good but not without a sound growth strategy.
Ellsworth: Well, I’ve only got one word to say to you: pork bellies. So, what do you think, Rich?
Richie: I think all we ever talk about is money. We should be having fun.
Ellsworth: Money is fun.
Richie: All I’m saying is, I’m wondering if you can come this weekend and hang out.
Ellsworth: Hang out?
Richie: Yeah, like normal kids.
Reynolds: You know, you’re really acting weird, Richie. Anyway, no can do. I promised my dad I’d go to Tokyo for a hostile takeover.
Richie: Ellsworth?
Ellsworth: Sorry, trustees’ meeting.
Reg: Watch your rear, Ellsworth. First rule of defense. This is a cappuccino. I asked for a decaf caffe latte, you incompetent imbecile! If you can’t do the job, you…
Richie: First rule of defense, Reg. Always watch your rear.
[/spoiler]

Useful Tips: Sometimes you will find a direct statement of fact in a reading passage. Other times, you will not find a direct statement. Then you will need to use the facts as evidence to make an inference. An inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. Most of the distracting or trap choices do not repeat the exact same vocabulary that was used in the passage. Incorrect answer choices for inference questions may:

1.      describe another type or category mentioned in the talk, but not the one the question is asking about.

2.      be a logical conclusion that does not connect with other information in the passage.

3.      express a conclusion or inference that is the opposite of what is expressed in the passage.

4.      be partially correct except for one detail in the answer.

5. confuse details of the passage, leading to an incorrect conclusion.

Show if Off:
Did you find the best strategy uttered by the students to solve the case study provided the teacher? If there is any, what is it? Tell your reason below!

Listening Practice 2 – The Pragmatic/Attitude/Purpose Question on “Back to School”

Direction: Listen to a part of Discussion between a professor and his students in a business class.

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uSLscJ2cY04

[spoiler title=”Click Here: The Discussion Script”]
Dr. Phillip: All right, settle down, people. We’ve got a lot to cover,
and time is short. There are two kinds of people in business today, the quick and the dead. So, rather than waste your time this semester with a lot of useless theories, we’re going to jump right in with both feet and create a fictional company from the ground up. We’ll construct our physical plant. We’ll set up an efficient administrative and executive structure. Then we’ll manufacture our product and market it. I think you’ll find it very interesting and a lot of fun. So, let’s start by looking
at construction costs of our new factory.
Mr. Melon: What’s the product?
Dr. Phillip: That is immaterial for the purposes of our discussion here but if it makes you happy..let’s say we’re making tape recorders.
Mr. Melon: Tape recorders? Are you kiddin’? The Japs will kill us on the labor costs.
Dr. Phillip:OK, fine. Then let’s just say they’re widgets.
Mr. Melon: What’s a widget?
Dr. Phillip: It’s a fictional product. It doesn’t matter.
Mr. Melon: Doesn’t matter?. Tell that to the bank.
Mr. Melon’s classmate: It’s the first day.
Dr. Phillip: On the board, you will see a cost analysis for construction of a 30,000 square-foot facility which will encompass both factory and office space and is fully serviced by all utilities. A railroad spur line and a four-bay shipping dock.
Mr. Melon: Hold it, hold it. Why build? You’re better off leasing at a buck and a quarter, a buck and a half a square foot. Take your down payment and put it into CDs or something else you can roll over every couple of months.
Dr. Phillip: Thank you, Mr. Melon but we’ll be concentrating on finance a little later in the term. For the time being, let’s just concentrate on the construction figures, shall we? You’ll see the final bottom line requires the factoring in of not just the material
and construction costs but also the architects’ fees and the cost of land servicing.
Mr. Melon: Oh, you left out a bunch of stuff.
Dr. Phillip: Oh, really? Like what, for instance?
Mr. Melon: First of all, you have to grease the local politicians for the sudden zoning problems that always come up. Then there’s the kickbacks to the carpenters. And if you plan on using any cement in this building, I’m sure the teamsters would like to have a little chat with you, and that’ll cost you. Don’t forget a little something
for the building inspectors. There’s the long-term costs, such as waste disposal. I don’t know if you’re familiar with who runs that business but I assure you it’s not the boy scouts.
Dr. Phillip: That will be quite enough, Mr. Melon. Maybe bribes and kickbacks and Mafia payoffs are how you do business but they are not part of the legitimate business world and they’re certainly not part of anything I’m teaching in this class. Do I make myself clear?
Mr. Melon: Sorry. Just trying to help. That’s all.
Dr. Phillip: Now, notwithstanding Mr. Melon’s input, the next question for us is
where to build our factory.
Mr. Melon: How about Fantasyland?
[/spoiler]

Tips:
Pay attention to the way stress and intonation patterns are used to convey meaning. Replay segments multiple times, listening for shades of meaning. This will help you understand a speaker’s point of view. Remember, pragmatic/function questions do not deal with the meaning of the words the speaker says, but rather with the information that is implied by how the speaker says them.

Show it Off! 
Based on your opinion, whose opinion do you think is the best approach to initiate a business? Tell your reason below!


Go to the Next Unit 3 – Lecture

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